■ PLANET X:
After the discovery of the Planet Pluto in 1930 CE, astronomers soon noted that earlier theories regarding the hypothetical influences of such a planet on the orbits of Planets Uranus and Neptune were not validated by the existence of only Pluto. So eventually in the 1970s after computers were becoming commonplace, a computer-generated model of this «Planet X», as it was called, was created. It was determined that Planet X would have to be at least five times bigger than the Planet Earth. They also calculated the length and shape of its orbit around the Sun as well as the number of years necessary to complete such an orbit.
■ PLANET X:
In January 1981 several daily newspapers stated that Pluto's orbit indicates that Planet X exists. The report stated that an astronomer from the U.S Naval Observatory told a meeting of the American Astronomical Society that irregularities in the orbit of Pluto indicates that the solar system contains a 10th planet. He also noted that this came to no surprise to Zecharia Sitchin, whose book about this planet came out three years prior.
Search for the Tenth Planet
Astronomers are readying telescopes to probe the outer reaches of our solar system for an elusive planet much larger than Earth. Its existence would explain a 160-year-old mystery. ... The pull exerted by its gravity would account for a wobble in Uranus' orbit that was first detected in 1821 by a French astronomer, Alexis Bouvard. Beyond Pluto, in the cold, dark regions of space, may lie an undiscovered tenth planet two to five times the size of Earth. Astronomers at the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) are using a powerful computer to identify the best target zones, and a telescopic search will follow soon after. ... Van Flandern thinks the tenth planet may have between two and five Earth masses and lie 50 to 100 astronomical units from the Sun. (An astronomical unit is the mean distance between Earth and the Sun.) His team also presumes that, like Pluto's, the plane of the undiscovered body's orbit is tilted with respect to that of most other planets, and that its path around the Sun is highly elliptical.
New York Times
June 19, 1982
A pair of American spacecraft may help scientists detect what could be a 10th planet or a giant object billions of miles away, the national Aeronautics and Space Administration said Thursday. Scientists at the space agency's Ames Research Center said the two spacecraft, Pioneer 10 and 11, which are already farther into space than any other man-made object, might add to knowledge of a mysterious object believed to be beyond the solar system's outermost known planets. The space agency said that persistent irregularities in the orbits of Uranus and Neptune "suggest some kind of mystery object is really there" with its distance depending on what it is. If the mystery object is a new planet, it may lie five billion miles beyond the outer orbital ring of known planets, the space agency said. If it is a dark star type of objet, it may be 50 billion miles beyond the known planets; if it is a black hole, 100 billion miles. A black hole is a hypothetical body in space, believed to be a collapsed star so condensed that neither light nor matter can escape from its gravitational field.
Does the Sun Have a Dark Companion?
June 28 1982
When scientists noticed that Uranus wasn't following its predicted orbit for example, they didn't question their theories. Instead they blamed the anomalies on an as yet unseen planet and, sure enough, Neptune was discovered in 1846. Now astronomers are using the same strategy to explain quirks in the orbits of Uranus and Neptune. According to John Anderson of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., this odd behavior suggests that the sun has an unseen companion, a dark star gravitationally bound to it but billions of miles away. ... Other scientists suggest that the most likely cause of the orbital snags is a tenth planet 4 to 7 billion miles beyond Neptune. A companion star would tug the outer planets, not just Uranus and Neptune, says Thomas Van Flandern of the U.S Naval Observatory. And where he admits a tenth planet is possible, but argues that it would have to be so big - a least the size of Uranus - that it should have been discovered by now. To resolve the question, NASA is staying tuned to Pioneer 10 and 11, the planetary probes that are flying through the dim reaches of the solar system on opposite sides of the sun.
Searching for a 10th Planet
The hunt for new worlds hasn't ended. Both Uranus and Neptune follow irregular paths that observers can explain only by assuming the presence of an unknown body whose gravity tugs at the two planets. Astronomers originally though Pluto might be the body perturbing its neighbors, but the combined mass of Pluto and its moon, Charon, is too small for such a role. ... While astronomers believe that something is out there, they aren't sure what it is. Three possibilities stand out: First, the object could be a planet - but any world large and close enough to affect the orbits of Uranus and Neptune should already have been spotted. Searchers might have missed the planet, though, if it's unusually dark or has an odd orbit. ...
NASA has been recording velocities for a year now and will continue for as long as necessary. This past spring, it appeared that budget cuts might force the end of the Pioneer project. The space agency now believes that it will have the money to continue mission operations. Next year, the JPL group will begin analyzing the data. By the time the Pioneer experiment shows results, an Earth-orbiting infrared telescope may have discovered the body. ... Together, IRAS and the Pioneers will allow astronomers to mount a comprehensive search for new solar system members. The two deep space probes should detect bodies near enough to disturb their trajectories and the orbits or Uranus and Neptune. IRAS should detect any large body in or near the solar system. Within the next year or two, astronomers may discover not one new world, but several.
■ ПЛАНЕТА Х: Стаття в радянській газеті, 80-ті роки
■ PLANET X:
In 1983 with NASA's cooperation a group of astronomers began a comprehensive survey of the sky with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). In the fall of that year the IRAS discovered several moving objects in the vicinity of this solar system, including 5 previously unknown comets, a few «lost» comets, 4 new asteroids and «an enigmatic comet-like object». Headlines read «Giant Object Mystifies Astronomers» and «Mystery Body Found in Space».
New York Times
January 30, 1983
Something out there beyond the farthest reaches of the known solar system seems to be tugging at Uranus and Neptune. Some gravitational force keeps perturbing the two giant planets, causing irregularities in their orbits. The force suggests a presence far away and unseen, a large object that may be the long- sought Planet X. ... The last time a serious search of the skies was made it led to the discovery in 1930 of Pluto, the ninth planet. But the story begins more than a century before that, after the discovery of Uranus in 1781 by the English astronomer and musician William Herschel. Until then, the planetary system seemed to end with Saturn.
As astronomers observed Uranus, noting irregularities in its orbital path, many speculated that they were witnessing the gravitational pull of an unknown planet. So began the first planetary search based on astronomers predictions, which ended in the 1840's with the discovery of Neptune almost simultaneously by English, French, and German astronomers. But Neptune was not massive enough to account entirely for the orbital behavior of Uranus. Indeed, Neptune itself seemed to be affected by a still more remote planet. In the last 19th century, two American astronomers, Willian H. Pickering and Percival Lowell, predicted the size and approximate location of the trans-Neptunian body, which Lowell called Planet X. Years later, Pluto was detected by Clyde W. Tombaugh working at Lowell Observatory in Arizona. Several astronomers, however, suspected it might not be the Planet X of prediction. Subsequent observation proved them right. Pluto was too small to change the orbits of Uranus and Neptune, the combined mass of Pluto and its recently discovered satellite, Charon, is only 1/5 that of Earth's moon.
Recent calculations by the United States Naval Observatory have confirmed the orbital perturbation exhibited by Uranus and Neptune, which Dr. Thomas C Van Flandern, an astronomer at the observatory, says could be explained by "a single undiscovered planet". He and a colleague, Dr. Richard Harrington, calculate that the 10th planet should be two to five times more massive than Earth and have a highly elliptical orbit that takes it some 5 billion miles beyond that of Pluto - hardly next-door but still within the gravitational influence of the Sun. ...
US News World Report
Planet X - Is It Really Out There?
Sept 10, 1984
Shrouded from the sun's light, mysteriously tugging at the orbits of Uranus and Neptune, is an unseen force that astronomers suspect may be Planet X - a 10th resident of the Earth's celestial neighborhood. Last year, the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS), circling in a polar orbit 560 miles from the Earth, detected heat from an object about 50 billion miles away that is now the subject of intense speculation. "All I can say is that we don't know what it is yet," says Gerry Neugesbeuer, director of the Palomar Observatory for the California Institute of Technology. Scientists are hopeful that the one-way journeys of the Pioneer 10 and 11 space probes may help to locate the nameless body.
Note a definite increase in the frequency of 8+ quakes from 1900 over the last decade. Note that, prior to 1994, 8+ earthquakes had only occurred in consecutive years once before. I can hear the scientific explanations now ...
This is clearly an indication that there is better data collection now and the continual improvement in seismic monitoring observed demonstrates just how effective those tax dollars are in the hands of the establishment. Not hing to worry about here, just continual improvement in monitoring standards." and "No, actually there is no baseline established for "normal" so we can not infer anything from this apparent trend. The reference period is insufficient and we really need 10,000 years of data before we can infer anything at all. Certainly the bunching up of lines on the right hand side of the graph is nothing to worry about.
And here's another way of looking at it, the average annual number of 8+ quakes over each decade of the last century. The 2001 number is the annual average occurrence so far this decade (ie. for 2000 and 2001). The raw data I extracted is from the CNSS database for the period 1900 - 2001.
The search parameters were:
A Troubled Times member shows the exponential increase in deep quakes down to the 500 km level since 1994, using the database provided by a private organization known as The Council of the National Seismic System, working out of Berkeley, CA,which provide earthquake data and answers questions at their web site.
catalog = CNSS
start time = yyyy/mm/dd,hh:mm:ss
end time = yyyy/mm/dd,hh:mm:ss
minimum magnitude = 3.0
maximum magnitude = 9
minimum depth = 500
maximum depth = 700
event_type = E
U.S. Naval Observatory Public Affairs Office, August 17, 1998
U. S. Naval Observatory to Add Leap Second to Clocks
In 1972, by international agreement, it was decided to let atomic clocks run independently of the Earth, keep two separate times, and coordinate the two. In order to keep the difference between Earth time and atomic time within nine tenths of a second as the two times get out of sync, leap seconds are added to the atomic time scale. The International Earth Rotation Service (for which the U. S. Naval Observatory provides the Rapid Service) is the organization that monitors the difference between the two time scales and calls for leap seconds to be inserted when necessary. Since 1972, leap seconds have been added at intervals varying from six months to two-and-one-half years -- this leap second is eighteen months since the last one. Leap seconds are added because the Earth's rotation is tending to slow down. If the Earth were to speed up, a leap second would be removed.
Leap Second on UTC on June 30, 1997
On 30 June 1997, the last minute of the day will last 61 seconds. Why?
The Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, replacing GMT) is the reference time scale derived from The Temps Atomique International (TAI) calculated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) using a worldwide network of atomic clocks. UTC differs from TAI by an integer number of seconds; it is the basis of all activities in the world. UT1 is the time scale based on the observation of the Earth's rotation. It is now derived from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). The various irregular fluctuations progressively detected in the rotation rate of the Earth lead in 1972 to the replacement of UT1 as the reference time scale . However, it was desired by the scientific community to maintain the difference UT1-UTC smaller than 0.9 second to ensure agreement between the physical and astronomical time scales.
Since the adoption of this system in 1972, firstly due to the initial choice of the value of the second (1/86400 mean solar day of the year 1900) and secondly to the general slowing down of the Earth's rotation, it has been necessary to add 20 s to UTC. The next additionnal second will be introduced on 1 July 1997. The decision to introduce a leap second in UTC is the responsibility of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS). According to international agreements, first preference is given to the opportunities at the end of December and June, and second preference to those at the end of March and September. Since the system was introduced in 1972, only dates in June and December have been used.
Leap Second - Wikipedia
A leap second is a one-second adjustment that keeps broadcast standards for time of day close to mean solar time. Broadcast standards for civil time are based on Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), a time standard which is maintained using extremely precise atomic clocks. To keep the UTC broadcast standard close to mean solar time, UTC is occasionally corrected by an intercalary adjustment, or "leap", of one second. Over long time periods, leap seconds must be added at an ever increasing rate (see ΔT). The timing of leap seconds is now determined by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). Leap seconds were determined by the Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH) prior to January 1, 1988, when the IERS assumed that responsibility.
When a positive leap second is added at 23:59:60 UTC, it delays the start of the following UTC day (at 00:00:00 UTC) by one second, effectively slowing the UTC clock.
Reason for leap seconds
Leap seconds are necessary because time is measured using stable atomic clocks (TAI or International Atomic Time), whereas the rotation of Earth slows down continually, though at a slightly variable rate. Originally, the second was defined as 1/86400 of a mean solar day (see solar time). This was determined by the rotation of the Earth around its axis and its orbit around the Sun; time was measured by astronomical observations. But the solar day becomes 1.7 ms longer every century due mainly to tidal friction (2.3 ms/cy, reduced by 0.6 ms/cy due to glacial rebound).
The SI second counted by atomic time standards is now defined so that it matches the nominal second of 1/86400 of a mean solar day between 1750 and 1892. Time as measured by Earth's rotation has accumulated a delay with respect to atomic time standards. From 1961 to 1971, the rate of atomic clocks was constantly slowed to stay in sync with Earth's rotation. (Before 1961, broadcast time was synchronized to astronomically determined Greenwich Mean Time.) Since 1972, broadcast seconds have been exactly equal to SI seconds chosen in 1967 as a certain number of atomic vibrations.
UTC is counted by atomic clocks, but is kept approximately in sync with UT1 (mean solar time) by introducing a leap second when necessary. This happens when the difference (UT1−UTC) approaches 0.9 seconds, and is typically scheduled either at the end of June 30 or December 31 (though leap seconds can be applied at the end of any month). On January 1, 1972, the initial offset of UTC from TAI was chosen to be 10 seconds, which approximated the total difference which had accumulated since 1958, when TAI was defined equal to UT2, a smoothed version of UT1 (GMT) no longer used. The table shows the number of leap seconds added since then. The total difference between TAI and UTC is 10 seconds more than the total number of leap seconds.
The leap second adjustment (which is approximately 0.6 seconds per year) should not be confused with the difference between the length of the mean solar day and the SI day. This confuses velocity with travelled distance (in time). The reason for leap seconds is not the difference but the sum of the difference between the SI day and the mean solar day (currently about 0.002 seconds) over a given period of time. The actual rotational period varies due to unpredictable factors such as the motion of mass within Earth, and has to be observed rather than computed.
For example, suppose an atomic clock is used to count seconds from the Unix epoch of 00:00:00 on January 1, 1970. UTC and mean solar time (UT1) were almost identical at that time. After Earth makes one full rotation with respect to the mean Sun, the counter will register 86400.002 seconds (once again, the precise value will vary). Based on the counter, and assuming that a day is 24×60×60=86400 seconds long, the date will be calculated as 00:00:00.002 January 2, 1970. After 500 rotations, it will be 00:00:00 May 16, 1971 in solar time (UT1), but the counter will register 43,200,001 atomic seconds. Since 86400 × 500 is 43,200,000 seconds, the date will be calculated as 00:00:01 on May 16, 1971, as measured by atomic time. If a leap second had been added on December 31, 1970, then the date would be computed as 00:00:00 on May 16, 1971. The system involving leap seconds was set up to allow TAI and UT1 to have an offset of 10 seconds on January 1, 1972.
Tidal braking slows down Earth's rotation, causing the number of SI seconds in a mean solar day to increase from approximately 86400.002 to 86400.004 over 100 years. For unknown reasons, Earth sped up after year 2000, so the mean solar day has become 1 ms shorter and fewer leap seconds have been needed after year 2000.
Announcement of leap seconds
The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) announces the insertion of a leap second whenever the difference between UTC and UT1 approaches 0.6 s, to keep the difference between UTC and UT1 from exceeding ±0.9 s. The announcement appears in IERS "Bulletin C", typically published every six months.
The next leap second will be added at the end of 2008.
After UTC 23:59:59, a positive leap second at 23:59:60 would be counted, before the clock indicates 00:00:00 of the next day. Negative leap seconds are also possible, should the Earth's rotation become slightly faster; in that case, 23:59:58 would be followed by 00:00:00. Leap seconds occur only at the end of a UTC month, and have only ever been inserted at the end of June 30 or December 31. Unlike leap days, they occur simultaneously worldwide; for example, the leap second on December 31, 2005 occurred at 23:59:60 UTC. This was 6:59:60 p.m. U.S. Eastern Standard Time and 0:59:60 a.m. on January 1, 2006 Central European Time.
Historically, leap seconds have been inserted about every 18 months. However, because the Earth's rotation rate is unpredictable in the long term, it is not possible to predict the need for them more than six months in advance. From June 1972 through December 2005, the BIH/IERS gave instructions to insert a leap second on 23 occasions, after an initial 10 second offest from TAI on January 1, 1972. The interval between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2005 was the longest period without a leap second since the system was introduced.
Leap seconds are included in GPS time. A leap second will be added to GPS time during rollover from 31 Dec 08 to 1 Jan 09 at 23:59:60. Modern GPS receivers should automatically ingest the leap second while older recievers may require manual insertion. Note: a regularly broadcast message notes how far GPST and UTC are apart.
Some time signal broadcasts give voice announcements of the impending leap-second.
Proposal to redefine UTC and abolish leap seconds
On July 5, 2005, the Head of the Earth Orientation Center of the IERS sent a notice to IERS Bulletins C and D subscribers, soliciting comments on a U.S. proposal before the ITU-R Study Group 7's WP7-A to eliminate leap seconds from the UTC broadcast standard before 2008. (The ITU-R is responsible for the definition of UTC). The Wall Street Journal noted that the proposal was considered by a U.S. official to be a "private matter internal to the ITU", as of July 2005. It was expected to be considered in November 2005, but the discussion has since been postponed. Under the proposal, leap seconds would be technically replaced by leap hours as an attempt to satisfy the legal requirements of several ITU-R member nations that civil time be astronomically tied to the Sun.
A number of objections to the proposal have been raised. Dr. P. Kenneth Seidelmann, editor of the Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, wrote a letter lamenting the lack of consistent public information about the proposal and adequate justification. Steve Allen of the University of California, Santa Cruz cited the large impact on astronomers in a Science News article. He has an extensive online site devoted to the issues and the history of leap seconds, including a set of references about the U.S. proposal and arguments against it.
1985, "Енциклопедія чудес"
...Цеглини випалені в XV столітті значно більше намагнічені, ніж виготовлені в XX столітті. Сила магнітного поля Землі за останнє століття різко падає. Розрахунки показали, що якщо все так йтиме й далі, то вже через 4 тисячі років Земля розмагнітиться зовсім! Але нові розрахунки показали, що 3 -4 тисячі років тому напруженість иагнітного поля була такою ж як і тепер.
1985, "Енциклопедія чудес"
...За шість років (1948 - 1954) північний магнітний полюс перемістився на 150 кілометрів ближче до географічного...
За останні 20 років на Землі сталося більше руйнівних землетрусів, ніж за всю історію людства. З середини 80-х років почалися безпрецедентні землетруси і виверження вулканів.
■ PLANET X: Harrington's calculations
■ HURRICANE: Disaster in Florida
In 1992 hurricane 'Andrew' hit Florida. The people had to leave their homes and move. When the hurricane arrived it killed 15 people and destroyed thousands of buildings. More than 50 000 people left without shelter.
■ ALBlNOS: White buffalo
Prior to 1994 there has been only one report of a white buffalo birth in 1933 in Montana. Since 1994 there have been more births according to Looking Horse. Excerpt from Lincoln Journal Star article: "Looking Horse remembers the birth of Miracle, a white buffalo calf born Aug. 20, 1994, in Janesville, Wis. He was among thousands who made pilgrimages to see the calf. "It was something I thought I would never see in my life," he said. "It was just something I heard about when I was growing up." Three more - in North Dakota, Michigan and South Dakota - were born within four years of Miracle's birth, Looking Horse said. Two of those animals, the Michigan calf and Medicine Wheel, have since died, he added. Looking Horse said he's also heard of a white buffalo in Wyoming, but he's never seen that animal".